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She had an intelligent, loving husband, two beautiful children and an interesting career. But that was not enough.

She wanted excitement and passion. So for 11 years she carried on an extramarital affair with a longtime friend, a married lawyer. During their forbidden, secret moments together Laura not her real name got "the rush" she was looking for.

And it wasn't just sex. It was an incredible high, like when you first fall in love. Many women today, Heyn says in the book, are rejecting the role of the forever-loyal, self-sacrificing "Perfect Wife" and are finding pleasure and escape through extramarital relationships.

Far from ruining a woman's life, an adulterous relationship actually can enrich it, contends Heyn, a former editor in chief of Family Health magazine and executive editor of McCall's.

Although Heyn insists she is not advocating adultery, her research and interviews with hundreds of women who had strayed outside their marriages led her to conclude that in some cases, infidelity in the '90s even may enhance and save marriages.

Not everyone, including experts in the field of marital relationships, embraces that theory. Adultery isn't all fun and games, they warn.

It's a dangerous violation of trust that shatters marriages and causes enormous pain to children. Even women who have been unfaithful say that after the thrill is gone, their lives are left in shambles.

Cathy, an Orange County, Calif. But you pay for it later. Too many people get hurt. Even Laura admits that she deluded herself for years into thinking she had the best of both worlds: a great marriage and a lover on the side.

Some marriage and family experts, as well as divorce lawyers, agree that they see more women today who admit they have been unfaithful to their husbands.

However, even in jurisdictions that have decriminalised adultery, it may still have legal consequences, particularly in jurisdictions with fault-based divorce laws, where adultery almost always constitutes a ground for divorce and may be a factor in property settlement , the custody of children, the denial of alimony , etc.

Adultery is not a ground for divorce in jurisdictions which have adopted a no-fault divorce model. International organizations have called for the decriminalisation of adultery, especially in the light of several high-profile stoning cases that have occurred in some countries.

The head of the United Nations expert body charged with identifying ways to eliminate laws that discriminate against women or are discriminatory to them in terms of implementation or impact, Kamala Chandrakirana , has stated that: "Adultery must not be classified as a criminal offence at all".

In Muslim countries that follow Sharia law for criminal justice, the punishment for adultery may be stoning. In some jurisdictions, having sexual relations with the king's wife or the wife of his eldest son constitutes treason.

The term adultery refers to sexual acts between a married person and someone who is not that person's spouse.

In criminal law , adultery was a criminal offence in many countries in the past, and is still a crime in some countries today.

In family law , adultery may be a ground for divorce , [13] with the legal definition of adultery being "physical contact with an alien and unlawful organ", [14] while in some countries today, adultery is not in itself grounds for divorce.

Extramarital sexual acts not fitting this definition are not "adultery" though they may constitute "unreasonable behavior", also a ground of divorce.

Another issue is the issue of paternity of a child. The application of the term to the act appears to arise from the idea that "criminal intercourse with a married woman Some adultery laws differentiate based on the sex of the participants, and as a result such laws are often seen as discriminatory, and in some jurisdictions they have been struck down by courts, usually on the basis that they discriminated against women.

The term adultery , rather than extramarital sex , implies a moral condemnation of the act; as such it is usually not a neutral term because it carries an implied judgment that the act is wrong.

Adultery refers to sexual relations which are not officially legitimized; for example it does not refer to having sexual intercourse with multiple partners in the case of polygamy when a man is married to more than one wife at a time, called polygyny ; or when a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, called polyandry.

In archaic law, there was a common law tort of criminal conversation arising from adultery, "conversation" being an archaic euphemism for sexual intercourse.

This tort has been abolished in almost all jurisdictions, but continues to apply, for example, in some states in the United States , most notably in North Carolina.

Marital infidelity has been used, especially in the past, as a legal defence of provocation to a criminal charge, such as murder or assault.

In some jurisdictions, the defence of provocation has been replaced by a partial defence or provocation or the behaviour of the victim can be invoked as a mitigating factor in sentencing.

In the traditional English common law , adultery was a felony. Although the legal definition of adultery differs in nearly every legal system, the common theme is sexual relations outside of marriage, in one form or another.

Traditionally, many cultures, particularly Latin American ones, had strong double standards regarding male and female adultery, with the latter being seen as a much more serious violation.

Adultery involving a married woman and a man other than her husband was considered a very serious crime. In , English Lord Chief Justice John Holt stated that a man having sexual relations with another man's wife was "the highest invasion of property" and claimed, in regard to the aggrieved husband, that "a man cannot receive a higher provocation" in a case of murder or manslaughter.

Legal definitions of adultery vary. For example, New York defines an adulterer as a person who "engages in sexual intercourse with another person at a time when he has a living spouse, or the other person has a living spouse.

Blanchflower , it was held that female same-sex sexual relations did not constitute sexual intercourse, based on a definition from Webster's Third New International Dictionary ; and thereby an accused wife in a divorce case was found not guilty of adultery.

In , Virginia prosecuted an attorney, John R. In common-law countries, adultery was also known as criminal conversation.

This became the name of the civil tort arising from adultery, being based upon compensation for the other spouse's injury.

Another tort, alienation of affection , arises when one spouse deserts the other for a third person. A marriage in which both spouses agree ahead of time to accept sexual relations by either partner with others is sometimes referred to as an open marriage or the swinging lifestyle.

Polyamory , meaning the practice, desire, or acceptance of intimate relationships that are not exclusive with respect to other sexual or intimate relationships, with knowledge and consent of everyone involved, sometimes involves such marriages.

Swinging and open marriages are both a form of non-monogamy , and the spouses would not view the sexual relations as objectionable. However, irrespective of the stated views of the partners, extra-marital relations could still be considered a crime in some legal jurisdictions which criminalize adultery.

In Canada, though the written definition in the Divorce Act refers to extramarital relations with someone of the opposite sex, a British Columbia judge used the Civil Marriage Act in a case to grant a woman a divorce from her husband who had cheated on her with another man, which the judge felt was equal reasoning to dissolve the union.

In the United Kingdom, case law restricts the definition of adultery to penetrative sexual intercourse between a man and a woman, no matter the gender of the spouses in the marriage, although infidelity with a person of the same gender can be grounds for a divorce as unreasonable behavior; this situation was discussed at length during debates on the Marriage Same-Sex Couples Bill.

In India, adultery is the sexual intercourse of a man with a married woman without the consent of her husband when such sexual intercourse does not amount to rape.

It was a non-cognizable, non-bailable criminal offence, until the relevant law was overturned by the Supreme Court of India on 27 September In jurisdictions where adultery is illegal, punishments vary from fines for example in the US state of Rhode Island [39] to caning in parts of Asia.

Sometimes such stonings are ordered by informal village leaders who have de facto power in the community. For instance it may constitute fault in countries where the divorce law is fault based or it may be a ground for tort.

In some jurisdictions, the "intruder" the third party is punished, rather than the adulterous spouse. For instance art of the Penal Code of South Sudan reads: "Whoever, has consensual sexual intercourse with a man or woman who is and whom he or she has reason to believe to be the spouse of another person, commits the offence of adultery [ Historically, paternity of children born out of adultery has been seen as a major issue.

Modern advances such as reliable contraception and paternity testing have changed the situation in Western countries. Most countries nevertheless have a legal presumption that a woman's husband is the father of her children who were born during that marriage.

Children born out of adultery suffered, until recently, adverse legal and social consequences. In France , for instance, a law that stated that the inheritance rights of a child born under such circumstances were, on the part of the married parent, half of what they would have been under ordinary circumstances, remained in force until , when France was forced to change it by a ruling of the European Court of Human Rights ECtHR and in , the ECtHR also ruled that the new regulations must be also applied to children born before There has been, in recent years, a trend of legally favoring the right to a relation between the child and its biological father, rather than preserving the appearances of the 'social' family.

In , the ECtHR ruled in favor of a German man who had fathered twins with a married woman, granting him right of contact with the twins, despite the fact that the mother and her husband had forbidden him from seeing the children.

The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample described the occurrence of extramarital sex by gender in over 50 pre-industrial cultures.

The occurrence of extramarital sex by men is described as "universal" in 6 cultures, "moderate" in 29 cultures, "occasional" in 6 cultures, and "uncommon" in 10 cultures.

The occurrence of extramarital sex by women is described as "universal" in 6 cultures, "moderate" in 23 cultures, "occasional" in 9 cultures, and "uncommon" in 15 cultures.

In the Greco-Roman world , there were stringent laws against adultery, but these applied to sexual intercourse with a married woman.

In the early Roman Law , the jus tori belonged to the husband. It was therefore not a crime against the wife for a husband to have sex with a slave or an unmarried woman.

The Roman husband often took advantage of his legal immunity. Thus we are told by the historian Spartianus that Verus , the imperial colleague of Marcus Aurelius , did not hesitate to declare to his reproaching wife: "Uxor enim dignitatis nomen est, non voluptatis.

Later in Roman history, as William E. Lecky has shown, the idea that the husband owed a fidelity similar to that demanded of the wife must have gained ground, at least in theory.

Lecky gathers from the legal maxim of Ulpian : "It seems most unfair for a man to require from a wife the chastity he does not himself practice".

According to Plutarch , the lending of wives practiced among some people was also encouraged by Lycurgus , though from a motive other than that which actuated the practice Plutarch, Lycurgus, XXIX.

The recognized license of the Greek husband may be seen in the following passage of the pseudo-Demosthenic Oration Against Neaera :.

Husbands could kill the partners under certain circumstances and were required to divorce adulterous wives. Both Judaism and Christianity base their attitudes to adultery on passages in the Hebrew Bible Old Testament in Christianity , which firstly prohibits adultery in the Seventh Commandment : "Thou shalt not commit adultery.

Leviticus subsequently prescribes capital punishment for adultery, but refers to adultery between a man and a married woman:. And the man that committeth adultery with another man's wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour's wife, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death.

Significantly, the biblical penalty does not apply to sex if the woman is unmarried, otherwise it applies irrespective of the marital status of the man.

That is, if the man was married while the woman was not, there would not be a death penalty for adultery under these passages.

Though Leviticus prescribes the death penalty for adultery, the legal procedural requirements were very exacting and required the testimony of two eyewitnesses of good character for conviction.

The defendant also must have been warned immediately before performing the act. The death penalty for adultery was strangulation, [63] except in the case of a woman who was the daughter of a Kohain Aaronic priestly caste , which was specifically mentioned by Scripture by the death penalty of burning pouring molten lead down the throat.

At the civil level, however, Jewish law halakha forbids a man to continue living with an adulterous wife, and he is obliged to divorce her. Also, an adulteress is not permitted to marry the adulterer, but, to avoid any doubt as to her status as being free to marry another or that of her children, many authorities say he must give her a divorce as if they were married.

According to Judaism, the Seven laws of Noah apply to all of humankind; these laws prohibit adultery with another man's wife. The Ten Commandments were meant exclusively for Jewish males.

Sexual intercourse between an Israelite man, married or not, and a woman who was neither married nor betrothed was not considered adultery.

David 's sexual intercourse with Bathsheba , the wife of Uriah, did not count as adultery. According to Jennifer Wright Knust, this was because Uriah was no Jew, and only Jewish men were protected by the legal code from Sinai.

Adultery is considered by Christians immoral and a sin , based primarily on passages like Exodus and 1 Corinthians — Although 1 Corinthians does say that "and that is what some of you were.

But you were washed", it still acknowledges adultery to be immoral and a sin. Catholicism ties fornication with breaking the sixth commandment in its Catechism.

Until a few decades ago, [ when? Adultery was decriminalized in Argentina in , [78] and in Brazil in ; [79] but in some predominantly Catholic countries, such as the Philippines, it remains illegal.

The Book of Mormon also prohibits adultery. For instance, Abinadi cites the Ten Commandments when he accuses King Noah 's priests of sexual immorality.

Some churches such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have interpreted "adultery" to include all sexual relationships outside of marriage , regardless of the marital status of the participants.

Zina' is an Arabic term for illegal intercourse, premarital or extramarital. Various conditions and punishments have been attributed to adultery. Under Islamic law , adultery in general is sexual intercourse by a person whether man or woman with someone to whom they are not married.

Adultery is a violation of the marital contract and one of the major sins condemned by Allah in the Qur'an : [ citation needed ].

Punishments are reserved to the legal authorities and false accusations are to be punished severely. According to a hadith attributed to Muhammad, an unmarried person who commits adultery or fornication is punished by flogging times; a married person will then be stoned to death.

The Hindu Sanskrit texts present a range of views on adultery, offering widely differing positions. The Manusmriti , also known as the Laws of Manu , deals with this in greater detail.

When translated, verse 4. Rape is not considered as adultery for the woman, while the rapist is punished severely. Lesser punishment is recommended for consensual adulterous sex.

It recommends a new married couple to remain sexually faithful to each other for life. It also accepts that adulterous relationships happen, children are born from such relationships and then proceeds to reason that the child belongs to the legal husband of the pregnant woman, and not to the biological father.

Other dharmasastra texts describe adultery as a punishable crime but offer differing details. The term adultery in Naradasmriti is not confined to the relationship of a married man with another man's wife.

It includes sex with any woman who is protected, including wives, daughters, other relatives, and servants. Adultery is not a punishable offence for a man if "the woman's husband has abandoned her because she is wicked, or he is eunuch, or of a man who does not care, provided the wife initiates it of her own volition".

If the offended husband does not forgive, the Arthashastra recommends the adulterous woman's nose and ears be cut off, while her lover be executed.

The Kamasutra discusses adultery and Vatsyayana devotes "not less than fifteen sutras 1. It also explains the many signs and reasons a woman wants to enter into an adulterous relationship and when she does not want to commit adultery.

According to Werner Menski, the Sanskrit texts take "widely different positions on adultery", with some considering it a minor offense that can be addressed with penance, but others treat it as a severe offense that depending on the caste deserves the death penalty for the man or the woman.

According to Carl Olsen, the classical Hindu society considered adultery as a sexual transgression but treated it with a degree of tolerance.

Other Hindu texts present a more complex model of behavior and mythology where gods commit adultery for various reasons. For example, Krishna commits adultery and the Bhagavata Purana justifies it as something to be expected when Vishnu took a human form, just like sages become uncontrolled.

In Hindu texts, this relationship between gopis and Krishna involves secret nightly rendezvous. Some texts state it to be divine adultery, others as a symbolism of spiritual dedication and religious value.

According to Wendy Doniger, this view of adultery as evil is postulated in early Buddhist texts as having originated from greed in a previous life.

This idea combines Hindu and Buddhist thoughts then prevalent. The ugly envy the beautiful and this triggers the ugly to commit adultery with the wives of the beautiful.

Like in Hindu mythology , states Doniger, Buddhist texts explain adultery as a result from sexual craving; it initiates a degenerative process.

Buddhism considers celibacy as the monastic ideal. For he who feels that he cannot live in celibacy, it recommends that he never commit adultery with another's wife.

It should be avoided, state the Buddhist canonical texts. Buddhist Pali texts narrate legends where the Buddha explains the karmic consequences of adultery.

For example, states Robert Goldman, one such story is of Thera Soreyya. There are some differences between the Buddhist texts and the Hindu texts on the identification and consequences of adultery.

The term adultery in Naradasmriti is broader in scope than the one in Buddhist sources. In the text, various acts such as secret meetings, exchange of messages and gifts, "inappropriate touching" and a false accusation of adultery, are deemed adulterous, while Buddhist texts do not recognize these acts under adultery.

In some Native American cultures, severe penalties could be imposed on an adulterous wife by her husband. In many instances she was made to endure a bodily mutilation which would, in the mind of the aggrieved husband, prevent her from ever being a temptation to other men again.

The Code of Hammurabi , a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia , dating back to about BC, provided drowning as punishment for adultery.

In the tenth century, the Arab explorer Ibn Fadlan noted that adultery was unknown among the pagan Oghuz Turks.

Ibn Fadlan writes that "adultery is unknown among them; but whomsoever they find by his conduct that he is an adulterer, they tear him in two.

This comes about so: they bring together the branches of two trees, tie him to the branches and then let both trees go, so that he is torn in two. In medieval Europe, early Jewish law mandated stoning for an adulterous wife and her partner.

In England and its successor states, it has been high treason to engage in adultery with the King's wife, his eldest son's wife and his eldest unmarried daughter.

The jurist Sir William Blackstone writes that "the plain intention of this law is to guard the Blood Royal from any suspicion of bastardy, whereby the succession to the Crown might be rendered dubious.

Philip IV of France had all three of his daughters-in-law imprisoned, two Margaret of Burgundy and Blanche of Burgundy on the grounds of adultery and the third Joan of Burgundy for being aware of their adulterous behaviour.

The two brothers accused of being lovers of the king's daughters-in-law were executed immediately after being arrested.

The wife of Philip IV's eldest son bore a daughter, the future Joan II of Navarre , whose paternity and succession rights were disputed all her life.

The christianization of Europe came to mean that, in theory, and unlike with the Romans, there was supposed to be a single sexual standard, where adultery was a sin and against the teachings of the church, regardless of the sex of those involved.

In practice, however, the church seemed to have accepted the traditional double standard which punished the adultery of the wife more harshly than that of the husband.

Historically, many cultures considered adultery a very serious crime , some subject to severe punishment, especially for the married woman and sometimes for her sex partner, with penalties including capital punishment , mutilation , or torture.

Since the 20th century, such laws have become controversial, with most Western countries repealing them. However, even in jurisdictions that have decriminalised adultery, adultery may still have legal consequences, particularly in jurisdictions with fault-based divorce laws, where adultery almost always constitutes a ground for divorce and may be a factor in property settlement , the custody of children, the denial of alimony , etc.

Adultery is not a ground for divorce in jurisdictions which have adopted a no-fault divorce model, but may still be a factor in child custody and property disputes.

International organizations have called for the decriminalising of adultery, especially in the light of several high-profile stoning cases that have occurred in some countries.

Adultery is a crime in the Philippines. A wife can be charged with adultery, while a husband can only be charged with the related crime of concubinage, which is more loosely defined it requires either keeping the mistress in the family home, or cohabiting with her, or having sexual relations under scandalous circumstances.

Adultery was a crime in Japan until , [] in South Korea until , and in Taiwan until In , South Korea's Constitutional Court overturned the country's law against adultery.

The law was overturned because the court found that adultery is a private matter in which the state should not intervene. In China , punishments for adultery were differentiated based on gender of the spouse until In Taiwan , adultery was a criminal offense before During Qing rule in Taiwan , the husband or his relatives could bring charges.

The standard sentence was ninety lashes for each of the accused. The woman could be sold or divorced.

The matter could be settled out of court, with bodily harm to the accused or assorted punishments affecting his social standing. Under Japanese rule , only the husband could bring charges.

The accused could be sentenced to two years imprisonment. Wife selling became illegal, although private settlements still occurred. In Pakistan , adultery is a crime under the Hudood Ordinance , promulgated in The Ordinance sets a maximum penalty of death.

The Ordinance has been particularly controversial because it requires a woman making an accusation of rape to provide extremely strong evidence to avoid being charged with adultery herself.

A conviction for rape is only possible with evidence from no fewer than four witnesses. In recent years high-profile rape cases in Pakistan have given the Ordinance more exposure than similar laws in other countries.

On 27 September , the Supreme Court of India ruled that adultery is not a crime. In Southwest Asia, adultery has attracted severe sanctions , including the death penalty.

In some places, such as Saudi Arabia , the method of punishment for adultery is stoning to death. Proving adultery under Muslim law can be a very difficult task as it requires the accuser to produce four eyewitnesses to the act of sexual intercourse, each of whom should have a good reputation for truthfulness and honesty.

The criminal standards do not apply in the application of social and family consequences of adultery, where the standards of proof are not as exacting.

In regions of Iraq and Syria under ISIL, there have been reports of floggings as well as execution of people who engaged in adultery.

The method of execution was typically by stoning. Adultery in English law was not a criminal offence in secular law from the later twelfth century until the seventeenth century.

It was punishable under ecclesiastical law from the twelfth century until jurisdiction over adultery by ecclesiastical courts in England and Wales was abolished in England and Wales and some British territories of the British Empire by the Matrimonial Causes Act However, in English and Welsh common law of tort it was possible from the early seventeenth century for a spouse to prosecute an adulterer for damages on the grounds of loss of consortium until the Law Reform Miscellaneous Provisions Act Adultery was also illegal under secular statute law for the decade in which the Commonwealth Adultery Act was in force.

Among the last Western European countries to decriminalised adultery were Italy , Malta , Luxembourg , France , Spain , Portugal , Greece , Belgium , Switzerland , and Austria In most Communist countries adultery was not a crime.

In , there were proposals to introduce a gender-neutral adultery law. The plans were dropped, and it has been suggested that the objections from the European Union played a role.

Before the 20th century, adultery was often punished harshly. In Scandinavia, in the 17th century, adultery and bigamy were subject to the death penalty , although few people were actually executed.

The enforcement of adultery laws varied by jurisdiction. In England, the last execution for adultery is believed to have taken place in , when a woman named Susan Bounty was hanged.

The European Court of Human Rights ECHR has had the opportunity to rule in recent years on several cases involving the legitimacy of firing a person from their job due to adultery.

These cases dealt with people working for religious organizations and raised the question of the balancing of the right of a person to respect for their private life recognized in the EU and the right of religious communities to be protected against undue interference by the State recognized also in the EU.

These situations must be analyzed with regard to their specific circumstances, in each case. The ECtHR had ruled both in favor of the religious organization in the case of Obst and in favor of the fired person in the case of Schüth.

Until the s, most Latin American countries had laws against adultery. Adultery has been decriminalized in most of these countries, including Paraguay , [] Chile , [] Argentina , [78] Nicaragua , [] Dominican Republic , [] Brazil , [79] and Haiti Adultery is not a crime in Australia.

Under federal law enacted in , sexual conduct between consenting adults 18 years of age or older is their private matter throughout Australia, [] irrespective of marital status.

Australian states and territories had previously repealed their respective adultery criminal laws. Australia changed to no-fault divorce in , abolishing adultery as a ground for divorce.

The United States is one of few industrialized countries to have laws criminalizing adultery. Until the mid 20th century most U. These laws have gradually been abolished or struck down by courts as unconstitutional.

State criminal laws against adultery are rarely enforced. Federal appeals courts have ruled inconsistently as to whether these laws are unconstitutional especially after the Supreme Court decision Lawrence v.

Texas [] and as of the Supreme Court has not ruled directly on the issue. As of , adultery is a criminal offense in 19 states, but prosecutions are rare.

Although adultery laws are mostly found in the conservative states especially Southern states , there are some notable exceptions such as New York.

Idaho , Oklahoma , Michigan , and Wisconsin , where adultery is a felony , while in the other states it is a misdemeanor.

He was not prosecuted for it; it is not clear whether South Carolina could prosecute a crime that occurred in another jurisdiction Argentina in this case ; furthermore, under South Carolina law adultery involves either "the living together and carnal intercourse with each other" or, if those involved do not live together " habitual carnal intercourse with each other" which is more difficult to prove.

Even though the woman was very patient, she was about to let her husband go because their life together became unbearable.

But suddenly Rachel was offered a vacation at some resort and she agreed to take it. The woman had given up already on the […]. This is a story about a couple — Mike and Jessica.

Mike had been having a free life style: he could just leave his pregnant wife alone and go on vacation; moreover he cheated on her constantly.

The first explanation that every woman might have when her husband leaves the family is another woman. Monika thought the same. But she was wrong.

Tony did not have a lover when he was leaving her. Only later he would have other women. And not because he loved them but out of necessity- he did […].

There are many signs of a cheating spouse but each sign will only have particular significance when it actually happens to you.

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Jennifer settled down at home to bring up kids whereas David went on musical tours, […]. If your husband had an affair, first of all, try to answer the most important question on which your future decision will depend, namely if it was a one-night stand or serious relationships.

If it happened just once, think about not how to revenge and make your husband feel guilty, but how not to be […]. Ann had been happy in her marriage for eleven years.

Her husband and she had been bringing up their two kids, getting settled in the new apartment, paying out a loan for a car.

Ann loved her husband dearly and considered herself to be the happiest person on earth. She had had that feeling until […]. Cheating is never funny except in jokes about cheating.

The thing that makes it funny is the very thing that makes the real cheating painful — truth. Tony and Monika had been happily married for 25 years.

Tony is a tall, handsome man, very sociable and friendly. Monika is a petite, pleasant lady, very nice to talk to.

In common-law countries, adultery was also known as criminal conversation. This became the name of the civil tort arising from adultery, being based upon compensation for the other spouse's injury.

Another tort, alienation of affection , arises when one spouse deserts the other for a third person.

A marriage in which both spouses agree ahead of time to accept sexual relations by either partner with others is sometimes referred to as an open marriage or the swinging lifestyle.

Polyamory , meaning the practice, desire, or acceptance of intimate relationships that are not exclusive with respect to other sexual or intimate relationships, with knowledge and consent of everyone involved, sometimes involves such marriages.

Swinging and open marriages are both a form of non-monogamy , and the spouses would not view the sexual relations as objectionable.

However, irrespective of the stated views of the partners, extra-marital relations could still be considered a crime in some legal jurisdictions which criminalize adultery.

In Canada, though the written definition in the Divorce Act refers to extramarital relations with someone of the opposite sex, a British Columbia judge used the Civil Marriage Act in a case to grant a woman a divorce from her husband who had cheated on her with another man, which the judge felt was equal reasoning to dissolve the union.

In the United Kingdom, case law restricts the definition of adultery to penetrative sexual intercourse between a man and a woman, no matter the gender of the spouses in the marriage, although infidelity with a person of the same gender can be grounds for a divorce as unreasonable behavior; this situation was discussed at length during debates on the Marriage Same-Sex Couples Bill.

In India, adultery is the sexual intercourse of a man with a married woman without the consent of her husband when such sexual intercourse does not amount to rape.

It was a non-cognizable, non-bailable criminal offence, until the relevant law was overturned by the Supreme Court of India on 27 September In jurisdictions where adultery is illegal, punishments vary from fines for example in the US state of Rhode Island [39] to caning in parts of Asia.

Sometimes such stonings are ordered by informal village leaders who have de facto power in the community. For instance it may constitute fault in countries where the divorce law is fault based or it may be a ground for tort.

In some jurisdictions, the "intruder" the third party is punished, rather than the adulterous spouse. For instance art of the Penal Code of South Sudan reads: "Whoever, has consensual sexual intercourse with a man or woman who is and whom he or she has reason to believe to be the spouse of another person, commits the offence of adultery [ Historically, paternity of children born out of adultery has been seen as a major issue.

Modern advances such as reliable contraception and paternity testing have changed the situation in Western countries. Most countries nevertheless have a legal presumption that a woman's husband is the father of her children who were born during that marriage.

Children born out of adultery suffered, until recently, adverse legal and social consequences. In France , for instance, a law that stated that the inheritance rights of a child born under such circumstances were, on the part of the married parent, half of what they would have been under ordinary circumstances, remained in force until , when France was forced to change it by a ruling of the European Court of Human Rights ECtHR and in , the ECtHR also ruled that the new regulations must be also applied to children born before There has been, in recent years, a trend of legally favoring the right to a relation between the child and its biological father, rather than preserving the appearances of the 'social' family.

In , the ECtHR ruled in favor of a German man who had fathered twins with a married woman, granting him right of contact with the twins, despite the fact that the mother and her husband had forbidden him from seeing the children.

The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample described the occurrence of extramarital sex by gender in over 50 pre-industrial cultures.

The occurrence of extramarital sex by men is described as "universal" in 6 cultures, "moderate" in 29 cultures, "occasional" in 6 cultures, and "uncommon" in 10 cultures.

The occurrence of extramarital sex by women is described as "universal" in 6 cultures, "moderate" in 23 cultures, "occasional" in 9 cultures, and "uncommon" in 15 cultures.

In the Greco-Roman world , there were stringent laws against adultery, but these applied to sexual intercourse with a married woman. In the early Roman Law , the jus tori belonged to the husband.

It was therefore not a crime against the wife for a husband to have sex with a slave or an unmarried woman. The Roman husband often took advantage of his legal immunity.

Thus we are told by the historian Spartianus that Verus , the imperial colleague of Marcus Aurelius , did not hesitate to declare to his reproaching wife: "Uxor enim dignitatis nomen est, non voluptatis.

Later in Roman history, as William E. Lecky has shown, the idea that the husband owed a fidelity similar to that demanded of the wife must have gained ground, at least in theory.

Lecky gathers from the legal maxim of Ulpian : "It seems most unfair for a man to require from a wife the chastity he does not himself practice".

According to Plutarch , the lending of wives practiced among some people was also encouraged by Lycurgus , though from a motive other than that which actuated the practice Plutarch, Lycurgus, XXIX.

The recognized license of the Greek husband may be seen in the following passage of the pseudo-Demosthenic Oration Against Neaera :.

Husbands could kill the partners under certain circumstances and were required to divorce adulterous wives.

Both Judaism and Christianity base their attitudes to adultery on passages in the Hebrew Bible Old Testament in Christianity , which firstly prohibits adultery in the Seventh Commandment : "Thou shalt not commit adultery.

Leviticus subsequently prescribes capital punishment for adultery, but refers to adultery between a man and a married woman:. And the man that committeth adultery with another man's wife, even he that committeth adultery with his neighbour's wife, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death.

Significantly, the biblical penalty does not apply to sex if the woman is unmarried, otherwise it applies irrespective of the marital status of the man.

That is, if the man was married while the woman was not, there would not be a death penalty for adultery under these passages.

Though Leviticus prescribes the death penalty for adultery, the legal procedural requirements were very exacting and required the testimony of two eyewitnesses of good character for conviction.

The defendant also must have been warned immediately before performing the act. The death penalty for adultery was strangulation, [63] except in the case of a woman who was the daughter of a Kohain Aaronic priestly caste , which was specifically mentioned by Scripture by the death penalty of burning pouring molten lead down the throat.

At the civil level, however, Jewish law halakha forbids a man to continue living with an adulterous wife, and he is obliged to divorce her.

Also, an adulteress is not permitted to marry the adulterer, but, to avoid any doubt as to her status as being free to marry another or that of her children, many authorities say he must give her a divorce as if they were married.

According to Judaism, the Seven laws of Noah apply to all of humankind; these laws prohibit adultery with another man's wife.

The Ten Commandments were meant exclusively for Jewish males. Sexual intercourse between an Israelite man, married or not, and a woman who was neither married nor betrothed was not considered adultery.

David 's sexual intercourse with Bathsheba , the wife of Uriah, did not count as adultery. According to Jennifer Wright Knust, this was because Uriah was no Jew, and only Jewish men were protected by the legal code from Sinai.

Adultery is considered by Christians immoral and a sin , based primarily on passages like Exodus and 1 Corinthians — Although 1 Corinthians does say that "and that is what some of you were.

But you were washed", it still acknowledges adultery to be immoral and a sin. Catholicism ties fornication with breaking the sixth commandment in its Catechism.

Until a few decades ago, [ when? Adultery was decriminalized in Argentina in , [78] and in Brazil in ; [79] but in some predominantly Catholic countries, such as the Philippines, it remains illegal.

The Book of Mormon also prohibits adultery. For instance, Abinadi cites the Ten Commandments when he accuses King Noah 's priests of sexual immorality.

Some churches such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have interpreted "adultery" to include all sexual relationships outside of marriage , regardless of the marital status of the participants.

Zina' is an Arabic term for illegal intercourse, premarital or extramarital. Various conditions and punishments have been attributed to adultery.

Under Islamic law , adultery in general is sexual intercourse by a person whether man or woman with someone to whom they are not married.

Adultery is a violation of the marital contract and one of the major sins condemned by Allah in the Qur'an : [ citation needed ]. Punishments are reserved to the legal authorities and false accusations are to be punished severely.

According to a hadith attributed to Muhammad, an unmarried person who commits adultery or fornication is punished by flogging times; a married person will then be stoned to death.

The Hindu Sanskrit texts present a range of views on adultery, offering widely differing positions. The Manusmriti , also known as the Laws of Manu , deals with this in greater detail.

When translated, verse 4. Rape is not considered as adultery for the woman, while the rapist is punished severely. Lesser punishment is recommended for consensual adulterous sex.

It recommends a new married couple to remain sexually faithful to each other for life. It also accepts that adulterous relationships happen, children are born from such relationships and then proceeds to reason that the child belongs to the legal husband of the pregnant woman, and not to the biological father.

Other dharmasastra texts describe adultery as a punishable crime but offer differing details. The term adultery in Naradasmriti is not confined to the relationship of a married man with another man's wife.

It includes sex with any woman who is protected, including wives, daughters, other relatives, and servants. Adultery is not a punishable offence for a man if "the woman's husband has abandoned her because she is wicked, or he is eunuch, or of a man who does not care, provided the wife initiates it of her own volition".

If the offended husband does not forgive, the Arthashastra recommends the adulterous woman's nose and ears be cut off, while her lover be executed.

The Kamasutra discusses adultery and Vatsyayana devotes "not less than fifteen sutras 1. It also explains the many signs and reasons a woman wants to enter into an adulterous relationship and when she does not want to commit adultery.

According to Werner Menski, the Sanskrit texts take "widely different positions on adultery", with some considering it a minor offense that can be addressed with penance, but others treat it as a severe offense that depending on the caste deserves the death penalty for the man or the woman.

According to Carl Olsen, the classical Hindu society considered adultery as a sexual transgression but treated it with a degree of tolerance.

Other Hindu texts present a more complex model of behavior and mythology where gods commit adultery for various reasons.

For example, Krishna commits adultery and the Bhagavata Purana justifies it as something to be expected when Vishnu took a human form, just like sages become uncontrolled.

In Hindu texts, this relationship between gopis and Krishna involves secret nightly rendezvous. Some texts state it to be divine adultery, others as a symbolism of spiritual dedication and religious value.

According to Wendy Doniger, this view of adultery as evil is postulated in early Buddhist texts as having originated from greed in a previous life.

This idea combines Hindu and Buddhist thoughts then prevalent. The ugly envy the beautiful and this triggers the ugly to commit adultery with the wives of the beautiful.

Like in Hindu mythology , states Doniger, Buddhist texts explain adultery as a result from sexual craving; it initiates a degenerative process.

Buddhism considers celibacy as the monastic ideal. For he who feels that he cannot live in celibacy, it recommends that he never commit adultery with another's wife.

It should be avoided, state the Buddhist canonical texts. Buddhist Pali texts narrate legends where the Buddha explains the karmic consequences of adultery.

For example, states Robert Goldman, one such story is of Thera Soreyya. There are some differences between the Buddhist texts and the Hindu texts on the identification and consequences of adultery.

The term adultery in Naradasmriti is broader in scope than the one in Buddhist sources. In the text, various acts such as secret meetings, exchange of messages and gifts, "inappropriate touching" and a false accusation of adultery, are deemed adulterous, while Buddhist texts do not recognize these acts under adultery.

In some Native American cultures, severe penalties could be imposed on an adulterous wife by her husband. In many instances she was made to endure a bodily mutilation which would, in the mind of the aggrieved husband, prevent her from ever being a temptation to other men again.

The Code of Hammurabi , a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia , dating back to about BC, provided drowning as punishment for adultery.

In the tenth century, the Arab explorer Ibn Fadlan noted that adultery was unknown among the pagan Oghuz Turks. Ibn Fadlan writes that "adultery is unknown among them; but whomsoever they find by his conduct that he is an adulterer, they tear him in two.

This comes about so: they bring together the branches of two trees, tie him to the branches and then let both trees go, so that he is torn in two.

In medieval Europe, early Jewish law mandated stoning for an adulterous wife and her partner. In England and its successor states, it has been high treason to engage in adultery with the King's wife, his eldest son's wife and his eldest unmarried daughter.

The jurist Sir William Blackstone writes that "the plain intention of this law is to guard the Blood Royal from any suspicion of bastardy, whereby the succession to the Crown might be rendered dubious.

Philip IV of France had all three of his daughters-in-law imprisoned, two Margaret of Burgundy and Blanche of Burgundy on the grounds of adultery and the third Joan of Burgundy for being aware of their adulterous behaviour.

The two brothers accused of being lovers of the king's daughters-in-law were executed immediately after being arrested. The wife of Philip IV's eldest son bore a daughter, the future Joan II of Navarre , whose paternity and succession rights were disputed all her life.

The christianization of Europe came to mean that, in theory, and unlike with the Romans, there was supposed to be a single sexual standard, where adultery was a sin and against the teachings of the church, regardless of the sex of those involved.

In practice, however, the church seemed to have accepted the traditional double standard which punished the adultery of the wife more harshly than that of the husband.

Historically, many cultures considered adultery a very serious crime , some subject to severe punishment, especially for the married woman and sometimes for her sex partner, with penalties including capital punishment , mutilation , or torture.

Since the 20th century, such laws have become controversial, with most Western countries repealing them. However, even in jurisdictions that have decriminalised adultery, adultery may still have legal consequences, particularly in jurisdictions with fault-based divorce laws, where adultery almost always constitutes a ground for divorce and may be a factor in property settlement , the custody of children, the denial of alimony , etc.

Adultery is not a ground for divorce in jurisdictions which have adopted a no-fault divorce model, but may still be a factor in child custody and property disputes.

International organizations have called for the decriminalising of adultery, especially in the light of several high-profile stoning cases that have occurred in some countries.

Adultery is a crime in the Philippines. A wife can be charged with adultery, while a husband can only be charged with the related crime of concubinage, which is more loosely defined it requires either keeping the mistress in the family home, or cohabiting with her, or having sexual relations under scandalous circumstances.

Adultery was a crime in Japan until , [] in South Korea until , and in Taiwan until In , South Korea's Constitutional Court overturned the country's law against adultery.

The law was overturned because the court found that adultery is a private matter in which the state should not intervene. In China , punishments for adultery were differentiated based on gender of the spouse until In Taiwan , adultery was a criminal offense before During Qing rule in Taiwan , the husband or his relatives could bring charges.

The standard sentence was ninety lashes for each of the accused. The woman could be sold or divorced.

The matter could be settled out of court, with bodily harm to the accused or assorted punishments affecting his social standing. Under Japanese rule , only the husband could bring charges.

The accused could be sentenced to two years imprisonment. Wife selling became illegal, although private settlements still occurred.

In Pakistan , adultery is a crime under the Hudood Ordinance , promulgated in The Ordinance sets a maximum penalty of death.

The Ordinance has been particularly controversial because it requires a woman making an accusation of rape to provide extremely strong evidence to avoid being charged with adultery herself.

A conviction for rape is only possible with evidence from no fewer than four witnesses. In recent years high-profile rape cases in Pakistan have given the Ordinance more exposure than similar laws in other countries.

On 27 September , the Supreme Court of India ruled that adultery is not a crime. In Southwest Asia, adultery has attracted severe sanctions , including the death penalty.

In some places, such as Saudi Arabia , the method of punishment for adultery is stoning to death. Proving adultery under Muslim law can be a very difficult task as it requires the accuser to produce four eyewitnesses to the act of sexual intercourse, each of whom should have a good reputation for truthfulness and honesty.

The criminal standards do not apply in the application of social and family consequences of adultery, where the standards of proof are not as exacting.

In regions of Iraq and Syria under ISIL, there have been reports of floggings as well as execution of people who engaged in adultery.

The method of execution was typically by stoning. Adultery in English law was not a criminal offence in secular law from the later twelfth century until the seventeenth century.

It was punishable under ecclesiastical law from the twelfth century until jurisdiction over adultery by ecclesiastical courts in England and Wales was abolished in England and Wales and some British territories of the British Empire by the Matrimonial Causes Act However, in English and Welsh common law of tort it was possible from the early seventeenth century for a spouse to prosecute an adulterer for damages on the grounds of loss of consortium until the Law Reform Miscellaneous Provisions Act Adultery was also illegal under secular statute law for the decade in which the Commonwealth Adultery Act was in force.

Among the last Western European countries to decriminalised adultery were Italy , Malta , Luxembourg , France , Spain , Portugal , Greece , Belgium , Switzerland , and Austria In most Communist countries adultery was not a crime.

In , there were proposals to introduce a gender-neutral adultery law. The plans were dropped, and it has been suggested that the objections from the European Union played a role.

Before the 20th century, adultery was often punished harshly. In Scandinavia, in the 17th century, adultery and bigamy were subject to the death penalty , although few people were actually executed.

The enforcement of adultery laws varied by jurisdiction. In England, the last execution for adultery is believed to have taken place in , when a woman named Susan Bounty was hanged.

The European Court of Human Rights ECHR has had the opportunity to rule in recent years on several cases involving the legitimacy of firing a person from their job due to adultery.

These cases dealt with people working for religious organizations and raised the question of the balancing of the right of a person to respect for their private life recognized in the EU and the right of religious communities to be protected against undue interference by the State recognized also in the EU.

These situations must be analyzed with regard to their specific circumstances, in each case. The ECtHR had ruled both in favor of the religious organization in the case of Obst and in favor of the fired person in the case of Schüth.

Until the s, most Latin American countries had laws against adultery. Adultery has been decriminalized in most of these countries, including Paraguay , [] Chile , [] Argentina , [78] Nicaragua , [] Dominican Republic , [] Brazil , [79] and Haiti Adultery is not a crime in Australia.

Under federal law enacted in , sexual conduct between consenting adults 18 years of age or older is their private matter throughout Australia, [] irrespective of marital status.

Australian states and territories had previously repealed their respective adultery criminal laws. Australia changed to no-fault divorce in , abolishing adultery as a ground for divorce.

The United States is one of few industrialized countries to have laws criminalizing adultery. Until the mid 20th century most U.

These laws have gradually been abolished or struck down by courts as unconstitutional. State criminal laws against adultery are rarely enforced. Federal appeals courts have ruled inconsistently as to whether these laws are unconstitutional especially after the Supreme Court decision Lawrence v.

Texas [] and as of the Supreme Court has not ruled directly on the issue. As of , adultery is a criminal offense in 19 states, but prosecutions are rare.

Although adultery laws are mostly found in the conservative states especially Southern states , there are some notable exceptions such as New York. Idaho , Oklahoma , Michigan , and Wisconsin , where adultery is a felony , while in the other states it is a misdemeanor.

He was not prosecuted for it; it is not clear whether South Carolina could prosecute a crime that occurred in another jurisdiction Argentina in this case ; furthermore, under South Carolina law adultery involves either "the living together and carnal intercourse with each other" or, if those involved do not live together " habitual carnal intercourse with each other" which is more difficult to prove.

In Florida adultery "Living in open adultery", Art In Alabama adultery is a Class B misdemeanor. Adultery is a crime in Virginia, so that persons in divorce proceedings may use the Fifth Amendment.

Any criminal convictions for adultery can determine alimony and asset distribution. In there was a bill in Virginia to decriminalize adultery and make it only a civil offense, but the Virginia Senate did not advance the bill.

In the U. Six U. Laws against adultery have been named as invasive and incompatible with principles of limited government see Dennis J.

Much of the criticism comes from libertarianism , the consensus among whose adherents is that government must not intrude into daily personal lives and that such disputes are to be settled privately rather than prosecuted and penalized by public entities.

It is also argued that adultery laws are rooted in religious doctrines; which should not be the case for laws in a secular state. Opponents of adultery laws regard them as painfully archaic, believing they represent sanctions reminiscent of nineteenth-century novels.

They further object to the legislation of morality, especially a morality so steeped in religious doctrine. Support for the preservation of the adultery laws comes from religious groups and from political parties who feel quite independent of morality, that the government has reason to concern itself with the consensual sexual activity of its citizens … The crucial question is: when, if ever, is the government justified to interfere in consensual bedroom affairs?

There is a history of adultery laws being abused. In Somerset , England, a somewhat common practice was for husbands to encourage their wives to seduce another man, who they would then sue or blackmail , under laws for examples see Criminal conversation prohibiting men from having sex with women married to other men.

Historically, in most cultures, laws against adultery were enacted only to prevent women—and not men—from having sexual relations with anyone other than their spouses, [ citation needed ] since women were deemed their husbands' property , [ citation needed ] with adultery being often defined as sexual intercourse between a married woman and a man other than her husband.

At the same time, men were free to maintain sexual relations with any women polygyny provided that the women did not already have husbands or "owners".

These laws were enacted in fear of cuckoldry and thus sexual jealousy. Many indigenous customs, such as female genital mutilation [] and even menstrual taboos , [] have been theorized to have originated as preventive measures against cuckolding.

This arrangement has been deplored by many modern intellectuals. Opponents of adultery laws argue that these laws maintain social norms which justify violence, discrimination and oppression of women; in the form of state sanctioned forms of violence such as stoning , flogging or hanging for adultery; or in the form of individual acts of violence committed against women by husbands or relatives, such as honor killings , crimes of passion , and beatings.

The United Nations Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in practice is deeply concerned at the criminalization and penalization of adultery whose enforcement leads to discrimination and violence against women.

Concerns exist that the existence of "adultery" as a criminal offense and even in family law can affect the criminal justice process in cases of domestic assaults and killings, in particular by mitigating murder to manslaughter , [] or otherwise proving for partial or complete defenses in case of violence.

These concerns have been officially raised by the Council of Europe and the UN in recent years. The Council of Europe Recommendation Rec 5 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the protection of women against violence states that member states should An argument against the criminal status of adultery is that the resources of the law enforcement are limited, and that they should be used carefully; by investing them in the investigation and prosecution of adultery which is very difficult the curbing of serious violent crimes may suffer.

Human rights organizations have stated that legislation on sexual crimes must be based on consent , and must recognize consent as central, and not trivialize its importance; doing otherwise can lead to legal, social or ethical abuses.

Amnesty International, when condemning stoning legislation that targets adultery, among other acts, has referred to "acts which should never be criminalized in the first place, including consensual sexual relations between adults".

Ezekiel ,45 That they have committed adultery, and blood is in their hands, and with their idols have they committed adultery, and have also caused their sons, whom they bare unto me, to pass for them through the fire , to devour them ….

Jeremiah ,28 Withhold thy foot from being unshod, and thy throat from thirst: but thou saidst, There is no hope: no; for I have loved strangers, and after them will I go….

New International Version "'You adulterous wife! You prefer strangers to your own husband! New Living Translation Yes, you are an adulterous wife who takes in strangers instead of her own husband.

English Standard Version Adulterous wife, who receives strangers instead of her husband! Berean Study Bible You adulterous wife!

You receive strangers instead of your own husband! New American Standard Bible "You adulteress wife, who takes strangers instead of her husband! New King James Version You are an adulterous wife, who takes strangers instead of her husband.

King James Bible But as a wife that committeth adultery, which taketh strangers instead of her husband! Christian Standard Bible You adulterous wife, who receives strangers instead of her husband!

Contemporary English Version You are nothing but an unfaithful wife who would rather have sex with strangers than with your own husband.

Adulterous Wives - Produktinformation

On this Fifth Sunday of Lent, the Gospel presents to us the episode of the adulterous woman cf. Das einzige Verbrechen, dass viele schuldig waren darin bestand, die Opfer ihrer Mate ist die ehebrecherischen Beziehungen. Wollen Sie einen Satz übersetzen?

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  1. ich beglückwünsche, es ist der einfach prächtige Gedanke

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